Clinical Markers of Oral Manifestations in
HIV/AIDS Patients: Case Report

Yus Khaidir1, Purnama Jaya2, Diah Savitri Ernawati1, Bagus Soebadi1, Hening Tuti Hendarti1

Department of Oral Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Department of Oral medicine, RSPAU Dr. S. Hardjolukito, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.



Objectives: Oral manifestation can act as clinical markers of an underlying systemic disease: oral candidiasis (OC) and oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) serve as clinical markers for patients infected HIV/AIDS. Oral candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida albicans which is an oral microflora that can cause opportunistic infection. Oral hairy leukoplakia is an epithelial infection caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV). HIV can induce the expression of EBV as OHL.


This case report describes the t oral lesions found in a 30-year-old male patient who attended RSPAU Dr. Hardjolukito with a variety of symptoms: limp, cough and fever  which had started a week earlier. Weight loss and night sweats had been continuously present for the preceding months.


Intra-oral examination A white, multiple pseudomembrane was visible on the buccal mucosa, tongue, palate, uvula and desquamation along the lips. White plaques had appeared on the left and right side of the tongue and extended to other parts of the oral cavity during the preceding two months, along with a bitter taste, dry lips, and canker sores (mouth ulcer). The patient underwent a complete blood examination, HIV antibody test, KOH swab examination and direct culture.


Methods: Treatment and observation patient until healing of the lesions.


Conclusions: Oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia are the first clinical manifestations found in patients with HIV/AIDS, the retrovirus will remain in the body for life even though it is not active; but if the immune system fails due to low levels of CD4+ lymphocytes, the virus can be reactived. Topical nystatin and fluconazole are the preferred antifungal drugs for Candida albicans. The best therapy for HIV/AIDS is antiretroviral drugs.