Update: Oral Manifestations in Pediatric
HIV Infection in Developing Countries

Mario Mensana, Alexander Patera Nugraha, Diah Savitri Ernawati 

Department of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.



Objectives: to review recent findings about the oral manifestations that are prevalent in paediatric HIV-infection confined to developing countries.


Methods: literature search was done in PubMed databases restricted to cross-sectional observational research published within the last 10 years (2009-2019) on HIV-infected children living in developing countries.


Results: A total of 59 articles related to "HIV", "oral manifestation", and "children" keywords were reviewed, yet only 12 articles were selected based on the location of the study being conducted, study design, inclusion criteria, methodology used, parameters studied, and data presentation. The majority of the studies were conducted in India (5 articles). Candidiasis was the most common oral manifestations found in HIV positive children, followed by angular cheilitis, ulcers, and hyperpigmentation with mean prevalence of 44.2%, 27.2%, 11.1% and 6.5% respectively.


Conclusions: Studies on oral manifestation in HIV-positive children are very limited despite the extremely high infection rate in developing countries. Candidiasis remains the most common opportunistic infection found in HIV positive children as their immunity declines.