|Duggal MS, Abudiak H, Dunn C, Tong HJ, Munyombwe T.
Department Paediatric Dentistry, Division of Child Dental Health, Leeds
Dental Institute, Clarendon Way, Leeds, England, LS2 9LU. firstname.lastname@example.org
AIMS: This was to determine the presence and types of oral
mucosal lesions in a sample of HIV(+)/AIDS South African children taking
antiretroviral therapy and to investigate the relationship between CD4(+)
lymphocyte counts, viral load, duration of taking antiretroviral therapy
(DART), and age on presence of oral lesions.
METHODS: The samples consisted of 56 South African
children aged 0-4 years (mean age =7.09 years) with HIV(+)/AID, infected at
birth. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the presence of
oral lesions with test group (patients with oral lesions) and control group
(patients with no oral lesions). Children were also divided into two groups,
those <6 years and those 6 years old to study the effect of age on presence
RESULTS: Oral Candidiasis was the most common lesion
reported in 19/56 children, followed by Recurrent Herpetic Infection in 9
children. Other lesions such as Kaposi's sarcoma, Multifocal Epithelial
Hyperplasia, Oral Hairy Leukoplakia, Linear Gingival Erythema, and oral
ulceration were also present. A statistical significant difference in CD4(+)
lymphocyte count (p value 0.005), and viral load (p value 0.002) was found
between the oral lesion and no oral lesion groups, those with oral lesions
having a significantly higher viral load and lower CD4+ count. No
statisticaly significant difference between the two groups in terms of the
DART effect (p value 0.811) was found. Furthermore, there was no effect of
age groups on the presence of lesions in children with HIV(+)/AIDS.
CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the relatively scant
literature on the prevalence of oral lesions in children with HIV infection
in South Africa and also the relationship of these lesions to the viral load
and CD4(+) lymphocyte counts.